Cycloalkanes (also called cycloparaffins) are saturated hydrocarbons with a cyclic chain and the general formula CnH2n (where n must take a value greater than 3) containing carbon atoms in the sp3 hybridization state. These hydrocarbons were first identified in petroleum (naphthene) by Vladimir Markovnikov.

Structure and nomenclature

The molecule of a cycloalkane contains two fewer hydrogen atoms than the alkane with the same number of carbon atoms. The first term in the homologous series of cycloalkanes contains three carbon atoms. The name of cycloalkanes is formed from the name of the respective alkane with the same number of carbon atoms in the molecule, adding the prefix cyclo-.

Due to structural peculiarities and different chemical behavior, cycloalkanes are divided, depending on the size of the ring, into cycloalkanes:

1.with small rings (C3-C4, unstable);
2.with regular rings (C5-C6, stable).

Cycloalkanes with a ring of six carbon atoms have greater practical application.