Ketones

Ketones are chemical compounds containing as a functional group a carbonyl group (>C=O), which binds to two radicals (R2C=O). A ketone group contains three carbon atoms. Compared to aldehydes, ketones have a carbonyl group attached to carbon atoms in both bond directions. The simplest ketone is acetone or propanone (R = R' = methyl residues), with the formula CH3C(O)CH3. Many ketones are of biological and industrial importance, such as: ketoses (a subclass of monosaccharides), steroids (testosterone), and short-chain ketones (acetone, butanone, etc.).

Name

the name ketone is derived from the Old German term Aketon, which referred to 'acetone'.

According to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic compounds, ketones are named by adding the suffix -ona to the name of the hydrocarbon from which the chain present in the ketone structure originates. In some cases it is necessary to mention the position of the carbonyl group. There are also common names for some representatives, for example acetone or benzophenone.

Classification

According to the nature of the radical, ketones can be:
-Aliphatic
-Aromatic
-Mixed
According to the number of carbonyl groups, ketones can be:
-Monocarbonyl (acetone)
-Polycarbonyl